The fresh new gonostyli is actually highlighted inside red-colored, and can be clearly observed in newly mated queens

The fresh new gonostyli is actually highlighted inside red-colored, and can be clearly observed in newly mated queens

Female genitalia out-of Yards. fasciculata and you will measures to possess mating connect coupling. (A) Virgin females genitalia within the front glance at. (B) Male genitalia out-of pre-copula men, addressing the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Vaginal capsule, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you will S-IX. (F) Men genitalia creating the latest coupling of your connect: ventral look at vaginal medicine and metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out from the looks of the male of the an effective telescopic course. (G) Men vaginal product isolated of male’s looks, having dick regulators brought about, gonostyli up against the alternative position regarding the initial. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and you will S-IX, in which sternum S-IX assumes the brand-new position from inside the male’s gut. (I) Mating connect in more detail, showing new horizontal compression out of gonocoxites. (J) The latest vaginal chamber from a great connected female: the fresh new membranous region that contains the brand new mating connect affixed.

From the low-Melipona kinds (F

longipes, S. aff. Postica, and P. minima), we observed robust cock regulators having intermediary curve and you may a diminished spatha ( Shape step 1)paring the entire morphology out of knob valves and you can spatha regarding M. fasciculata to another read variety, i unearthed that both M. flavolineata and you may Yards. seminigra features narrow dick valves having lowest curve. not, M. seminigra features smaller regulators than just M. flavolineata, and a well established spatha when compared to another Melipona ( Figure 1).

Breakdown out-of hypothesized plugging measures

The final reputation out of mating plugs in to the mated female paired the fresh position of your male’s gut through the copulation on account of “J” way and you can position under female’s instinct ( Contour 4C). In most physogastric queens regarding M. fasciculata, we seen this new mating plug connected to the membranous vaginal purse of the knob valves, to your spatha surface created towards the feminine ventral portion, placed directly under the latest gonopore ( Profile 3J). I propose that the latest mating connect system try caused if men genital capsule is actually irreversibly protruded away from male’s system, which results in modified positions of your gonostyli, manhood valves, and you will gonocoxites.

The fresh new mating group of Meters. fasciculata, based on a video clip list out of mating of a related varieties. Throughout: (A) male in flight, seeking condition in itself over the females; (B) positioned male, appearing sets out of foot fitting along side woman’s human anatomy; (C) men raising the abdomen of your girls; (D) male making the feminine just after effective mating, that is, the fresh new mating connect attachment. In all pieces, male wings is portrayed to help you show the direction while in the mating, predicated on Additional Videos S1 .

The latest mating group of M. fasciculata, predicated on a video record from mating out-of a related types. Throughout: (A) men in flight, looking to reputation alone along side women; (B) arranged male, exhibiting sets of ft fitting over the female’s body; (C) men raising the gut of your lady; (D) men making the female after winning mating, that’s, the fresh new mating connect attachment. In most bits, men wings is depicted to portray its way while in the mating, centered on Supplementary Videos S1 .

In accordance with the investigations anywhere between resting condition of vaginal medications and caused condition from mating plugs, its practical morphology, and in video information into mating behavior regarding a directly associated types ( Second Clips S1 ), we recommend that triggering from mating connect happens in 5 hypothetical tips ( Rates 3 and you will 4):

After immobilizing the feminine human anatomy, a man inserts their metasomal sternum S-VIII according to the females tergum T-VI, training it ( Contour 4C).

Once the ladies vaginal chamber are open ( Contour 3A), a man gonostyli suits the fresh new woman’s vaginal part. Immediately following position the newest sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out of the male’s human body toward the brand new female’s vaginal chamber also the vaginal supplement, because of the an effective https://besthookupwebsites.org/local-hookup/cardiff/ telescopic movement ( Profile 3F). New insertion off male genital supplement towards the people genital chamber isn’t with this new gonostyli, and therefore move backward for the techniques, kept outside the lady vaginal chamber ( Contour 3G).

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